Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Heart Of The Lungs - 857 Words

The Lungs are a part of every living human and animal that exist today. The lungs are classified as one of the hardest-working organs in the body, besides the heart. They can expand and contract up to 20 times a minute or more to provide oxygen to be distributed to tissues in all parts of the body. They are considered to be the largest organ in the body. Taking up over forty percent of the chest cavity. Due to the size, we can only have two. The heart takes up the other space in the upper cavity. Each lung is made up of a sponge like material of tissue. They have been divided up into sections called lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left lung only has two. These are called the superior, middle, and inferior. The average size of the lungs is 11 in. in length. Most normal adult human’s lungs are about the same size. The normal lungs have an average weight of 234 grams or so. The weight depends a lot on the health of the lung. The average pair of human lungs can hold about 5 liters of air. Approximately, a healthy human can breathe up to 24480 times in a day. The lungs are red color because it is smooth muscles. It is made of all muscle tissue. The job of my organ is to take oxygen from the air and carbon dioxide is exchange. It does its job with the millions tiny grape-likes cells that are called alveoli, which allows oxygen to seep into the capillaries or the thin wall that air sacs where carbon dioxide exchange take place.Show MoreRelatedHeart Disease, Lung And Blood Institute2047 Words   |  9 PagesBACKGROUND In January 1986, heart disease in women emerged from the shadows when the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a workshop of researchers and clinicians to describe the current state of knowledge and provide direction for future research in the area of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. A major objective of the meeting was to offer the opportunity for this diverse group of professionals to interact across disciplines and to lay the groundwork for future endeavorsRead MoreEssay on Understanding Pulmonary Hypertension954 Words   |  4 Pagesfunctions. All the functions that each system has, is what makes possible for the body to obtain life. One of the most important systems in one’s body is the circulatory system, where the heart, the lungs, and the blood vessels work together to form the circle part of the circulatory system. The pumping of the heart forces the blood on its journey. The body’s circulatory system really has three parts: pulmona ry circulation, coronary circulation, and systemic circulation. Each part must be working independentlyRead MoreFunctions Of The Respiratory System860 Words   |  4 Pagesof the respiratory system is to exchange oxygen and carbon monoxide between the body and the environment. Throughout the body are specific organs and structures that make the respiratory system possible. In humans, respiration takes place in the lungs. In the article by Kim Ann Zimmermann, Respiratory System: Facts, Function, and Diseases she explains how the series of organs in a person s body work together to exchange the gases we breathe and distribute it throughout the rest of the body.Read MoreSmoking While Pregnancy Essay1332 Words   |  6 Pagesthe main effects of smoking while pregnant can include heart problems and lung problems for the newborn child at birth. Smoking is a dangerous habit to have especially if a young mother is expecting a newborn. After a pregnant woman gives birth, her baby can be diagnosed with having serious birth defects because its organs are not functioning correctly. For example, the baby can be diagnosed with lung problems. This happens when a baby lungs are not fully developed in the womb and it is born weeksRead MoreChap 18 Case Study 1135 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿1. Dr. Baker spends a long time listening to (auscultating) Caleb’s heart. a. Where on the thoracic surface do you auscultate to the tricuspid, mitral (bicuspid), pulmonary, and aortic valves? Auscultation for the tricuspid valve would be in the left sternal margin of the 5th intercostal space. The mitral valve sounds are heard over the apex of the heart (5th intercostal space) in line with the middle of the clavicle. Pulmonary valve sounds are auscultated at the 2nd intercostal space at the leftRead MoreCancer : A Disease That Caused By Uncontrolled Division Of Abnormal Cells Essay1617 Words   |  7 Pages Lung Cancer Melissa Flores St. Pius X St. Matthias Academy General Biology, Period 4 Ms. Washington Cancer General Information Cancer is a disease that is caused by uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in the part of our human bodies (American Heart Society [AHS], 2015). There are more than 100 diseases that have to do with cancer. In the world today, hundreds of people are diagnosed with cancer . Cancers that are untreated can cause serious illnesses and deaths. Cells in theRead MoreHypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome1214 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction One of the rarest of congenital cardiac defects is Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, HLHS. This syndrome is described as a collection of anomalies affecting the left heart and connecting structures. Due to advancements in surgical intervention mortality rates in neonates with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome have decreased. Management of these patients requires a symphony of multidisciplinary teams including fetal and pediatric cardiologist, cardiac surgeons, neonatologist, pulmonologistRead MoreLab Report Heart Dissection Of The Heart1033 Words   |  5 PagesReport Heart Dissection The heart is a fantastical organ. The fact that it can circulate blood throughout the body in a quick span of time and make sure every limb and organ is nourished is astounding. The wonder is only increased when we look upon the heart in an Aristotelian sense, as something created and working towards a function, where every part is there for a reason. If we keep in mind the purpose of the heart while looking at the way it is structured with veins, arteries, and the heart itselfRead MoreThe Heart Of The Circulatory System Essay1692 Words   |  7 Pagesof the body systems. The heart is at the centre of the circulatory system. The heart helps pump blood throughout the whole body, and the blood goes back to the heart in a circular motion going round in a circle but it goes around the body and body systems. The cells within the body get their nutrients from both systems. The left side of the heart carried out systemic circulation; which pumps the blood the right side of the heart, which then it pumps the blood to the lungs, which is part of the pulmonaryRead MoreEffects of Smoking on Health Essay1075 Words   |  5 Pages Tar is dangerous because it settles on the lining of the airways in the lungs. In the 1950s it was found to cause changes that can cause lung cancer and lung disease. A microscope picture of a smokers lung tissue. [IMAGE] Lung disease causes the sufferer difficulty in breathing. This is caused by tiny particles settling in the depths of the lungs. These particles make the lungs more susceptible to air borne infections, such as pneumonia, influenza and

Monday, May 18, 2020

My Results From Physical Performance Lab - 1176 Words

Looking at my results from the physical performance lab, I can definitely say that the positive aspects of my assessment were my body composition, flexibility, grip strength, and lung function. From an early age, I had participated in ballet and gymnastics, so being able to touch my toes or reaching the ground is something that is almost second nature to me. I got a 6.5 on the flexibility test and although I did not do as well as I had anticipated, I did the best I could from my time apart from ballet. Nonetheless, every morning when I wake up, I would get out of bed and try and stand up straight and see how much I have improved in terms of touching my toes. Stretching has become a part of my daily routine when I get out of bed. Meanwhile, my percent fat is not very shocking to me because I try to eat as healthy as I can, as well as drinking 2 liters of water daily. I was hoping I did better on the lung function test but I think I did not do as well because I was still getting over a cold from the week before. Unfortunately, the negative aspects of my assessment would be the aerobic fitness and my blood pressure. I would say that my VO2 Max, which is 25.1 is poor due to the fact that I did not do participate in any sort of intense workouts like running or exercises that require physical endurance for a long period of time. My choice of working out as been going to Yoga. Yoga has taught be to me patient and resilient. I am able to get a good workout from the intense heatShow MoreRelatedBBCI Essay977 Words   |  4 Pagessettings with rack-mounted instruments. My research will focus on developing a small-form factor backscatter communication system capable of streaming 32 channels of neural data at 20 Mbps (sampling rate of 20 kHz per 16-bit channel) using 10 pJ/bit as a step towards improving BBCIs. Wireless BBCI’s would ideally permit researchers to analyze subjects in natural, unconstrained environments for long durations (24 hours) while streaming neural recording data from multiple channels [5]. The UniversityRead MoreNutrition Is The Basic Process Of Providing The Human Body With The Necessary Food For Health And Growth1611 Words   |  7 Pagesis considered one of the most influential components in improving athletic performance. Optimal nutrition can enhance (a) physical activity, (b) athletic performance and (c) recovery from exercise (Manroe, M.M., Barr, S.I., Butterfield, G.E., 2000). Optimal nutrition can be characterized as (1) proper selection of food and liquids, (2) timing of ingestion and (3) selection of suppl ements for ideal exercise performance (Manroe, M.M., Barr, S.I., Butterfield, G.E., 2000). Diet tracking is a straightforwardRead MoreQuality Assurance - Quality Control Lab Technician1184 Words   |  5 PagesQuality Assurance – Quality Control Lab Technician Why Quality lab technician? When I first started to work I started working as a team leader for a company name Medicia Corp. My responsibilities and duties were to supervise all operations of a production line including personnel, from the beginning stage to the final packaging process. That’s how it all began. I acquired a lot of knowledge of what quality control was in the manufacturing field. As life went on I had the opportunity to work forRead MoreA Research Study On Genetics966 Words   |  4 PagesGenetics has always been a topic piquing my interest. From the first time I learned about a pedigree in middle school biology to the day I discovered the library of chromosomes housed in each of our cells, I could not help but be fascinated with genetics and its role in our portrayals, capabilities, and prevalence in disease. Perhaps this curiosity stemmed from the fact that I have an identical twin. The notion that our likeness, physical features, and even temperament, were due to the identicalRead MorePersonal Assessment Of The Servant Leadership1421 Words   |  6 Pagesand (d) responsible. The following paper will discuss the theory that is most helpful personally. This paper will also describe what one has learned from a personal assessment of the Servant Leadership Questionnaire, which has five factors (altruistic calling, emotional healing, organizational stewardship, persuasive mapping, and wisdom) and results. Out of the four normative leadership theories described by Johnson (2015), I find servant leadership most helpful. Servant leaders are for the mostRead MoreLab Report : Iron Deficiency Anemia1288 Words   |  6 Pages†¢ What is the objective of the lab? The objective is to describe storage of iron and iron transport. Analyze hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. †¢ Why is iron essential for proper functioning of the body? Iron is an essential element for the production of blood body. The iron is found in red blood cells of the blood, which is called hemoglobin, and myoglobin is found in the muscle cells. Hemoglobin is also essential for transferring oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the tissues. †¢ WhatRead MoreEnsure Accuracy Case Study1707 Words   |  7 PagesMethods to Ensure Accuracy In this case study school information and data are gathered in numerous ways in order to provide much needed information for the teachers and administration to see performance strength and weaknesses of the students. It is critical that this data be handled properly to ensure accuracy, security, and reliability of the data. One method this school uses to ensure accuracy is to provide several training opportunities to teachers and Title I staff who will administer testsRead MoreStudent s Choice Of How They Spend Their Leisure Time Will Affect Their Collegiate Gpa1499 Words   |  6 Pagesdetrimental to their health. Whether it be a lab report, final project, or cumulative test, Elon students at one point or another will find themselves stressing out and in need to unwind. In today’s world, there are many options that allow students to unwind, taking a walk, playing video games, or napping to name a few. These activities have nothing to do with your school work. However, will they make an impact on your performance in the classroom? For my paper topic, I decided to investigate how aRead MoreMy Father Being An Engineer1417 Words   |  6 Pages My father being an engineer in Bangladesh Air force, watching MIG-29 and other supersonic jets soaring up in the sky was a very common experience for me in my childhood. Being a child with tremendous curiosity, unlike other kids I was accustomed to asking â€Å"how† rather than exclaiming â€Å"wow†. This curious nature of mine led me to know about the engineers, the builders of modern civilization. Since then, the idea of being an engineer, being able to play with the laws of physics and unveilingRead MoreTeachers Plants Seed of Knowledge and Love of Education in Students691 Words   |  3 Pagesopportunity to plant seeds of knowledge and love of education into our students, and ultimately that is our purpose in this wonderful profession. My belief of my role as an educator encompasses several parts. In the 21st century, education can no longer be strictly about academics. Education today must now look at emotional, social, academic and physical forms of education. An educator’s role is to be facilitators in learning, not just an individual who pours out knowledge and hopes the students

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

How Effective is Federalism in the U.S. - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2137 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/02/15 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: Federalism Essay Did you like this example? American federalism has evolved in many ways over the years. The common theme among the different types of federalism is balancing power between federal government and lower levels of government. There are those who shed light mainly on the disadvantages of federalism, but there are also those who choose to shift their focus to the advantages and ways that federalism can empower citizens. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How Effective is Federalism in the U.S." essay for you Create order Does competition among state and federal government really focus on the well-being of citizens? How do mobility and choice tie into federalism? Is there a pending resurgence of federalism in our nation? Federalism is a unique system of government. In America, there are various levels of government such as local, state and federal. The idea of federalism is that the divided authority will counter an all-powerful federal government. The Tenth Amendment is the basis for American federalism (Unknown author,, unknown publish date). This Amendment addresses the relationship between state and federal government (Unknown author,, unknown publish date). To understand federalism, it’s important to know the history of the system, what inspired the idea to begin with, how it’s evolved, the ways it affects citizens, etc. Around the 1780’s most nations had unitary governments . A unitary government is a system in which the central government wields either most or all political authority. Americans specifically rebelled against the unitary government of Britain. Understandably, when forming the U.S., early Americans weren’t too keen on the idea of jumping right back into this type of system. Confederations were another popular system of government around this time. This type of government gives a majority of the power to states. One of the main issues with a confederation is weakened central authority. Delegates at the Constitutional Convention came up with a tentative solution. Enter: federalism. The U.S. first saw dual federaism from 1789-1933. In dual federalism, it’s very apparent which level of government has what authority. For this reason, dual federalism is also referred to as â€Å"layer cake† federalism. Defined â€Å"layers† of governmental responsibility, just like a layer cake. Next, cooperative federalism (1933-1981) was implemented. Cooperative federalism is also called â€Å"marble cake† federalism. The reason for thi s is that in this system, different government functions all seem sort of blended together. While a cake with flavors that intermingle is quite enjoyable, as a system of government, it can become confusing. Who’s authorized to do what? That’s a question cooperative federalism poses. From 1981-2009, the United States saw the rise of new federalism. New federalism emphasizes the importance of local and state governments. The lines of authority are even more swirled together with new federalism than with cooperative federalism. Introduced in 2009 and still in practice today, we have progressive federalism. Progressive federalism, of course, grants the federal government power to set certain ground rules for what states can do, but ultimately the idea is that states will have the bulk of the power (Unknown author, Types of Federalism, the Basis for American Government,, unknown publish date). A prime example of federalism is the movement to make the recreational use of marijuana legal. Marijuana is classified by the federal government as a controlled substance. Even though recreational use of marijuana is still federally prohibited, the Obama administration inspired a more laid-back attitude regarding marijuana. States are generally allowed to decide how they’d like to penalize (or not penalize) citizens if they’re found to be in possession of marijuana. Though, states still must meet specific requirements (like not allowing children to end up with marijuana in thei r possession) (G. Lopez, Marijuana Legalization, Explained,, November 14, 2018). Competitive federalism is again, based on the Tenth Amendment. Its main concept is that states should be able to compete with one another on important policy issues. The idea is that if states are given the money and authority to do so, there’s more room for beneficial changes and breakthroughs (M. Mayer, Power to the States,, May 31, 2018). One major argument made by those who support competitive federalism is that it liberates citizens. More specifically, supporters argue that competitive federalism gives constituents the ability to act as government consumers by finding which state best fits their specific needs and then moving there (O. Lipsett, the Failure of Federalism: Does Competitive Federalism Actually Protect Individual Rights?, Constitutional Journal of Law, March 2008). Choice and mobility are recurring themes throughout the multiple points of view on federalism overall. The new era known that brought about competitive federalism surfaced around 1978. At this time, state governments and federal government began engaging in competition with one another for citizens, support and resources. Around 1928 to 1978, the federal government had an apparent fiscal edge. This was known as the centralization period. Competitive federalism was a result of the loss of that advantage (J. Shannon, J.E. Kee, Public Budgeting Finance, Volume 9, Issue 4, December 1989). There’s a lot of questioning about whether or n ot competitive federalism is truly beneficial to citizens. For example, in United States v. Windsor, the issue was same-sex marriage. The Defense of Marriage Act (known hereafter as DOMA) was passed in 1996. DOMA allowed states to decide whether or not they’d recognize same-sex marriages. At the time DOMA was in effect, the federal government specifically defined â€Å"marriage† as a union between a male and a female. Because of this, many same-sex couples didn’t have access to some significant benefits heterosexual married couples did (joint tax filing, estate-tax exemption, etc.). The Court ultimately ruled that the states were permitted to choose whether or not to define marriage. Then, a woman who had been directly feeling the negative effects of DOMA took monumental action. Edith Windsor sued the federal government and succeeded. Her victory resulted in DOMA being repealed. It was determined that the federal government was not authorized to define marriage This is a significant example of competitive federalism because same-sex couples could move to states that wouldn’t deny them marital benefits. (Unknown author, 3.4 Competitive Federalism Today,[emailprotected]:[emailprotected]/Competitive-Federalism-Today, unknown publish date) Federalism can be empowering to citizens. First, there are many states that are extremely focused on individual rights. Since states are given leeway to make decisions on policy issues, some citizens who may not feel their rights are protected in one state may feel differently in another. This is c losely related to citizen choice. Citizens are empowered because they’re given options to find a state that could meet unfulfilled needs. Citizens also can find themselves empowered through the emphasis on state government’s power. More Americans seem to trust state and local levels of government than in the national government. This is understandable, as these levels of government offer quicker and more efficient responses to constituents’ needs (Morone Kersh, By the People: Third Edition, 2016). Private ownership is the first of three private economic principles. It’s the responsibility of the government to determine who owns what, permit property owners to use their own judgement to determine the best use of their private property. The government must also protect private property. In nations that don’t have an organized, formal system for private ownership, there are lots of issues. If government isn’t establishing legal rules that determine who owns what, there’s not much they can do to protect the property (T. West, The Heritage Foundation’s First Principles Series, The Economic Principles of Americas Founders: Property Rights, Free Markets and Sound Money, No. 32, August 30, 2010). Market freedom is the next private economic principle. Everyone must be entitled to sell what they what, when they want and to who they want for a reasonable price that’s mutually agreed upon. There are some exceptions, of course. The role of the gove rnment in market freedom is to clarify contracts and ensure the terms are upheld ( (T. West, The Heritage Foundation’s First Principles Series, The Economic Principles of Americas Founders: Property Rights, Free Markets and Sound Money, No. 32, August 30, 2010). A command (or planned) economy is the opposite of a free market. Command economies place centralized power in the government to delegate how much of certain goods are produced and how they’re sold and used (L. Kramer, What’s the Difference Between a Market Economy and a Command Economy,, January 9, 2018). The last private economic principle is stable money. There needs to be a reliable way of measuring market value. A lack of reliable money can lead to unpredictable fluctuations in the prices of services and goods (T. West, The Heritage Foundation’s First Principles Series, The Economic Principles of Americas Founders: Property Rights, Free Markets and Sound Money, No. 32, August 30, 2010). Mobility and choice are key topics within federalism. There are those who are of the opinion that federalism offers citizens more choices. Those who are in this camp of thought argue that citizens can simply base their decisions on where to move according to which states offer which benefits, programs, resources, etc. However, there are also those who argue that people aren’t always able to easily utilize that mobility (Morone Kersh, By the People: Third Editon, 2016). Federalism relates to centralization and addresses same. The fiscal correlation between federalism and centralization is that in theory, lower levels of government are given more freedom to make decisions. Federalism also directly relates to policy centralization. Again, since federalism aims to balance power, there’s a drive to let states take more charge on policy matters (J. Rodden, Comparative Federalism and Decentralization: On Meaning and Measurement, Comparative Politics, Vol. 36, No. 4, July 2004). One advantage of federalism is protection against autocracy. This is arguably one of the most important advantages of a federalist system. With power divvied up between, there’s less of a chance of the nation falling under tyrannical rule. Checks and balances are important for this reason (R. Wiseman, Advanta ges Disadvantages of Federalism,, unknown publish date). Another advantage of federalism is that citizen participation is increased. As mentioned previously, citizens show more trust in local levels of government. Because the federal government isn’t given omnipotent authority, citizens are more inclined to participate in political activities (R. Wiseman, Advantages Disadvantages of Federalism,, unknown publish date). A third advantage of federalism is that state governments are far more responsive to the needs of the citizens. This is very closely tied in with increased citizen participation. This leads to better conflict management and a more efficient system (R. Wiseman, Advantages Disadvantages of Federalism,, unknown publish date). Now, of course, there are certain disadvantages of federalism. The first is that federalism makes it possible for there to be policy imbalances among the states. (R. Wiseman, Advantages Di sadvantages of Federalism,, unknown publish date). An example that comes to mind is the case of United States v. Windsor, which I discussed earlier in this paper. A second disadvantage of federalism is that it makes unanimity quite difficult. We are a nation of different political parties. When local officials are in charge of parties in a state, the politics can get particularly chaotic (Morone Kersh, By the People: Third Edition, 2016). Finally, as previously discussed when reviewing the history of federalism in America, it was made very obvious that blurred lines of authority can pose various issues. Overlapping governmental responsibilities can breed coordination issues (Morone Kersh, By the People: Third Edition, 2016). There are some factors that may be paving the way for a resurgence of federalism in America. Historically, America has had a national government smaller than other nations. During significant events such as the World Wars, the Great Depression and the Cold War, the size grew. However, with each increase in size, efforts have been consistent to reduce size again. Another factor is that Americans have displayed a tremendous amount of civic voluntarism since the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This means citizens are getting involved in public life of their own volition. This voluntary spirit leads to political innovations and positive changes in policies across the nation. Finally, checks and balances, ensuring that public officials cannot act unilaterally, could has and will continue to lead to great strides for our nation (Morone Kersh, By the People: Third Edition, 2016). Throughout the process of examining the positive and negative aspects of a federalist system, I do be lieve that it’s an effective system. Checks and balances, citizen involvement and responsive officials can all lead the way to improve upon this system and work toward empowering the nation’s citizens more than ever before.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Market Failure Of The Pharmaceutical Industry - 1245 Words

Market failure appears when there is a failure in allocation of goods and services. When the market is unsuccessful, the government is called to intervene and correct the failure. Over the years, government participation in the pharmaceutical market has been more wide-ranging than any other good or service. With the government’s ability to regulate, mandate, inform, finance and provide, their intervention to overcome market failure can be beneficial for the economy. Market failure plays a significant role in today’s economy. Pharmaceutical industries are a prime example. There are several possible reasons as to why and how market failures might lead to such high prices for drugs. Information asymmetry is the most critical form of†¦show more content†¦Moreover, patients often have less knowledge than the prescriber does about the appropriateness of the drug, where it can be very misinforming for the consumer. Lastly, drug efficacy is a problem in all contexts. Since stakeholders are likely, less informed than manufacturers it causes both the consumer and prescriber to depend on the manufacturer for information of the effectiveness of the drug (Bennett, Quick, Velasquez, 2016). Externalities, also viewed as the negative spillover effect, plays a role in market failures associated with pharmaceuticals. In the pharmaceutical sector, externalities take place when consumers affect the utilization of a drug’s value. Externalities typically stop consumers from receiving cheaper costs for drugs because they normally don’t carry the complete costs of drug expenses. Negative externalities induce a cycle of ongoing sales, more profits and more subsidies. Thus, if externalities are left to be controlled by a market then the implications will lead to high pricing on products. Recently, there had been a controversy over the rise in pharmaceutical costs involving the EpiPen in the United States. The EpiPen, also known as adrenaline/epinephrine, is a widely used injection that is used to treat allergic reactions. This generic drug has been available for many years. The EpiPen controversy is a prime example of how monopolyShow MoreRelatedPharmaceutical Industry : The Biggest Profits1579 Words   |  7 Pages Of all the innovation businesses in industry, the pharmaceutical industry produces the biggest profits; in 2013 five of the pharmaceutical giants made net revenue of more than 20%. The United States represented almost 50% of the worldwide pharmaceutical market, and at the forefront was the United States pharmaceutical mammoth Pfizer.(Anderson, 2014) The pharmaceutical industry is ethically unique because of its capacity to impact innumerable lives by improving the quality of life or by providingRead MorePatents And Its Impact On The World1254 Words   |   6 Pagesapplicable to industry. Patents were initiated for many reasons including providing property rights for accomplishments of people along with preventing market failure to occur through free riding. While patents provide many benefits to the world, many side effects or disadvantages have resulted from these ownerships of rights which have led to many temporary monopolies. One large impact which patents have had on the world is the impact on access to medication through pharmaceutical companies. TheRead MoreWhy Companies Should Have Patents On Their Medications And How A Pharmaceutical Company Can Recover The Costs1685 Words   |  7 Pagesprocesses a pharmaceutical must take to bring a new medication to the market. It will answer the questions as to why companies should have patents on their medications and how a pharmaceutical company can recover the costs connected with failed drugs. It will look at one company that was both effective and unsuccessful in its endeavor t o bring a new drug to market and explain what lead to their prosperity/disappointment. Of all the innovation businesses in industry, the pharmaceutical industry acquiresRead MoreThe Effects Of Counterfeited Drugs On Pharmaceutical Companies1643 Words   |  7 PagesCounterfeited Drugs on Pharmaceutical Companies The market for counterfeit pharmaceuticals has grown exponentially in the last five years. According to an estimate published by the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest in the USA, â€Å"Worldwide sales of counterfeit medicines could top US$ 75 billion this year, a 90% rise in five years† (WHO, 2010). This massive rise has greatly affected pharmaceutical companies and law enforcement agencies. The data exposing the effects the counterfeit industry has on companiesRead MoreBuyer Bargain Power Of The Pharmaceutical Industry1377 Words   |  6 PagesBuyer Bargain Power Buyers in the pharmaceutical industry are broken into physicians, who are the prescribers, patients, who are the users, hospital boards, who are authorizers of purchases and treatments, pharmacists, who are the distributors. Most of them have very minor influence on the pricing of the product, but unfortunately for the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry, they have to face a bargaining giants, the health organizations and the government agencies. Individual patients haveRead MoreCase Study950 Words   |  4 PagesQ1: Drawing on the five forces model, explain why the pharmaceutical industry has historically been a very profitable industry. Entry of potential competitors: It is not easy for a new company to enter into the pharmaceutical industry because: âž ¢ They have to invest lots of money in RD, advertising and sales promotion. âž ¢ There are high costs risks associated with developing a new drug bringing it to market as out of every five thousand compounds tested in the laboratory by a drugRead MoreGsk a Merger Too Far1158 Words   |  5 Pagesmacro-environment surrounding the pharmaceutical industry. (9 points) * PESTEL analysis of the pharmaceutical industry: Political: Since the creation of healthcare insurance, companies have to conform themselves to two kinds of systems: 1) The universal system applied for example in France, with less demand in new technologies. 2) The very selective anglo-saxon system which is looking for high technologies, excluding people who can pay for treatments. As we know the industry have to work on growingRead MoreMergers, Acquisitions, And International Strategies In The Pharmaceutical Industry1846 Words   |  7 PagesContents Introduction 2 II- Mercks acquisition of Inspire Pharmaceuticals 3 Background 3 Rationale 4 III- Target firm: Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its business corporate strategies 5 Business level strategy: 6 Corporate level strategy: 6 IV- Merck Co., Inc and its international consolidation strategy 6 Business level strategy 6 Corporate level strategy 7 References 8 Introduction Pharmaceutical industry is currently going through a phase of mergers and acquisitionsRead MoreEvaluation Of A Performance Management System1220 Words   |  5 Pagesperformance appraisal (PA) study in the Pakistan pharmaceutical industry, which identified critical performance factors that account for most negative perception among sales employees, the performance appraisal process and the organization. The case focused on making comparisons between the PA systems of Pakistan’s pharmaceutical national companies (NCs) and multinational companies (MNCs). In Pakistan, the pharmaceutical industry is the 11th largest market in the Asian Pacific Region and the largest employmentRead MoreEssay on The War on Pharmaceutical Companies1171 Words   |  5 Pageswhen discussed among people. No matter what, at one point or another, everyone is going to stand as a victim of the pharmaceutical industry. The bottom line is Americans are paying excessive amounts of money for medical prescrip tions. Health-Care spending in the U.S. rose a stunning 9.3% in 2002, which is the greatest increase for the past eleven years. (Steele 46) Many pharmaceutical companies are robbing their clients by charging extreme rates for their products. It is said that name-brand prescription

Aquinas vs. Augustine on Their Varying Views of Women Free Essays

St Thomas Aquinas and St Augustine of Hippo are considered to be two of the greatest Christian theologians in the history of Christianity. Both of these men are apart of the same organization, the Church. Just by this fact it would be easy to assume that they agree on all major issues of the day but this is not the case. We will write a custom essay sample on Aquinas vs. Augustine on Their Varying Views of Women or any similar topic only for you Order Now They have completely differing views with respect to women in secular and religious life corresponding with the idea of original sin, human sexuality, and social roles. Even in the modern Catholic Church they are still regarded as two of the most important doctors of the church despite their different teachings on key important aspects of leading a Christian life. This shows the variability within the institution of the Catholic Church and some degrees of disagreement within a major faith organization. St Augustine of Hippo termed the idea of original sin. Nowhere in the history of the church had any such concept been taught. He was a man who lived a life of sin and promiscuity until he had an extreme conversion. After this conversion he needed a way to justify all his bad decisions. He did so by terming original sin as the first sin made by Eve that doomed all of mankind for the rest of days. Augustine blames Eve for all the bad experiences in his life, even for all the bad decisions that he has made. He uses original sin and reveals the idea in such a way that no one has to take responsibility for his or her actions because it is innate in us to be bad. Original sin gives people an ‘easy out’ to excuse all previous bad behavior. Never before had the term ‘original sin’ been placed on the sin’s of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Augustine’s example of an ideal woman, his mother, is even faulted by this original sin caused by Eve. â€Å"†¦the torments which she suffered were proof that she had inherited the legacy of Eve, seeking in sorrow what with sorrow she had brought into the world† (Confessions, 101). It is as if woman cannot help but be lesser than man. Even his mother, who he has a high regard for, is as good as she can be—for a woman, â€Å"It is not of her gifts that I shall speak, but of the gifts you gave to her† (Confessions, 192). Original sin is possessed by all humankind and cannot be avoided, this makes it easy for people to remain blameless for sins they have committed. St Thomas Aquinas did not believe in the idea of original sin. He believed that you make choices in life and that original sin was a way to get out of taking responsibility for all the actions that you make, â€Å"†¦so original sin is not the sin of this person except insofar as this person receives his nature from his first parent† (The Summa, 44). He notices that in Genesis that man and woman are created by God before sin and by this interpretation it would be impossible for original sin to exist if it is inherent in mankind. â€Å"What is natural to man was neither taken away nor added to him by sin† (The Summa, 40). Inadvertently by stating this, he is not blaming women for the fall of man. He didn’t believe that woman should be blamed for every evil thing in the world. In fact, he agues that woman was made to perfect man and that without her he would not be whole and able to procreate. †¦it was necessary for woman to be made as a ‘helpmate’ to man† (The Summa, 37). Woman is not condemned to be below man. Aquinas does not explicitly state this however; he does omit mentioning woman as separate from man in his section of the order among man and other things. He states, â€Å"Those of superior intellect are the natural rulers while those who are less intelligent but have stronger bodies s eem to be made by nature to serve†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (The Summa, 11). He is not gender specific. In fact, one could read into this that most men are to be the servants because they have a stronger physique for working. Aquinas is much more for the idea of actual sin where †¦Ã¢â‚¬ the sin that is the result of [the action of] the soul upon the parts of the body†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (The Summa, 44). This means that each person’s sin is based upon the choices that they make in their life, not from something that is passed down from the original man. In a different aspect, Augustine believes that human sexuality is dirty. His writing is in favor of rejecting his own sexual nature to live a life away from woman altogether. In his writing he always uses negative language to talk about sexuality. He writes about a dream. He sees Continence and she says to him a quote from the Psalms â€Å"Close your ears to the unclean whispers of your body, so that it may be mortified. It tells you of things that delight you, but not such things as the law of the Lord your God has to tell† (Confessions, 176). These sexual temptations are impure, and disordered. He has to turn away from all things sexual. Through all his giving in to temptation in life he pulls a 180-degree turn once he converts and believes that he should never be with another woman again. He runs away from the general population and hides away in a monastery for the rest of his life. He changes from not being able to wait two years for a wife to have sex, to giving up sex forever. He feels like he had been greedy in the first part of his life and that the latter part should be given up to God. â€Å"†¦no bodily pleasure, however great it might be and whatever earthly light might shed luster upon it, was worthy of comparison†¦beside the happiness of the life of the saints† (Confessions, 197). Aquinas believes that human sexuality is innocent. He argues against the popular belief that woman is a ‘ misbegotten man’ by stating that â€Å"†¦woman is not something misbegotten but intended by nature to be directed to the work of procreation† (The Summa, 38). He goes on to say in that paragraph that because God is the creator of all things, and he created male and female, it is obvious that God intended for man and woman to exist with each other equally in nature. Human sexuality is necessary for procreation. Sin does not define whether or not human nature would procreate. â€Å"What is natural to man was neither taken away nor added to him by sin† (The Summa, 40). Sex is not a dirty act, quite the contrary; it is a perfection of God’s creation. â€Å"†¦by nature there is a union of the male and female for the purpose of procreation† (The Summa, 40). If the human race had never sinned and the world was in complete innocence we would still have the need to procreate and sex would be the necessary means to such. â€Å"In the state of innocence, however, reproduction would have taken place without lust† (The Summa, 40). Augustine had ideas for woman’s social roles as well. He had his mother as an example of an ideal woman and described how the ideal woman would be. Woman should behave a certain way. There is no circumstance where a woman would be over a man in any situation. He uses the example of his mother who he praises as possessing â€Å"†¦modesty and temperance†¦obey[ing] her parents†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Confessions, 194) as well as serving her husband as her lord (Confessions, 194). With her husband she â€Å"†¦knew better than to say or do anything to resist him when he was angry (Confessions, 195) and encouraged other women to â€Å"†¦not defy their masters† (Confessions, 195), in speaking about spousal relationships. In other words, woman should know their place and serve their husband without regard for self. He believed that the man was always to be placed first in every situation and that all women should be like his mother. Service should be a woman’s strong suit and it seems that Augustine believed that in this woman would be fulfilled. Aquinas believed that woman had worth and uses reason to prove this. Throughout his writings he uses non-gendered terms to describe most things, which is a sign to the reader that he believes in equality amongst men and women. He does say that woman was not made to be subjective to man in that she is a slave to him. He points out the two different meanings of subjection. The one kind is a product of the result of sin. The other kind is â€Å"†¦that of the household or the citizen in which the superior makes us of his subjects for their benefit or good† (The Summa, 38). He further specifies this to women when he says â€Å"woman is naturally subject to man in this kind of subjection because by nature man possesses more discernment of the reason† (The Summa, 38). In this, he is stating that there is a natural order to things. Not that woman is below the man in equality, but that there is simply a difference. This introduces the idea, separate but equal in a way. Man and woman are different, but also man and man are different. There are many cases in existence where a leader is needed to take charge. This is not because the one man is highly superior to all other men or that all other men should be slaves to the one, but that someone is needed to be a leader; â€Å"†¦someone can have dominion over another person as a free man, when he directs him to his own good or to the good of the community† (The Summa, 39). He also introduces an idea that if a woman is raped, she has committed no sin. Previously, when a woman was raped she was unworthy of marriage and was termed ‘dirty’. Aquinas finds worth in woman, and introduces the voice of reason in non-gendered terms in order to have his philosophies available to both man and woman. In their writings, St. Thomas Aquinas and St Augustine of Hippo have presented significantly differing views on women and the roles that they should have in the world. These three areas are some of the most important aspects of leading a good Christian life. Even today, these two men are regarded as doctors of the church and their ideals and philosophies are taught, with little regard for the fact that some of the things they teach are completely opposite of each other. Through these varying ideas about original sin, human sexuality, and social roles of man and woman they have set the stage for diversity within the Catholic Church. How to cite Aquinas vs. Augustine on Their Varying Views of Women, Papers

Banyan Tree Analysis free essay sample

Banyan Tree Holdings manages and develops resorts, hotels and spas. They have been listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange since 2006. Banyan began in 1994 with a single resort in Phuket and currently manages and has ownership interests in over 20 resorts and hotels, 60 spas, 70 retail galleries, and 3 golf courses. Refer to Appendix A for an overview of Banyan Tree’s global presence. The company is best known for its Banyan Tree and Angsana brands. In this paper, we consider the operations of the Banyan Tree Group. Here on, Banyan Tree Group will be referred to as â€Å"Banyan Tree†. Banyan Tree ends its fiscal year on 31st December each year. Financial Analysis Principal Activities Banyan Tree’s revenue is generated from three core business segments: Hotel Investments, Property Sales and Fee-based. Hotel Investments Banyan Tree main Hotel Investments were in Thailand, Maldives, China and Morocco. Investments in Thailand suffered a 24% dip in revenue due to reasons such as political instability and economic downturn in the Eurozone. On the same note, Morocco suffered a 29% dip in revenue per available room (RevPAR). On the other hand, investments in China and Maldives showed increases due to increasing demand from affluent travellers in China and successful marketing in Maldives. Property Sales Hotel Residences1 has earned $S12 million, a 50% drop from last financial year. Sales of Laguna property2 has earned $S17. 9 million, a 12% dropped from last financial year. Development project/site sales3 has earned $S36. 4 million. In 2011, Banyan Tree made a change in stance for their revenue recognition method, from the â€Å"percentage of completion† method as construction progresses, to the â€Å"completion† method. Hence, the overall property sales revenue was S$66. 3 million, up 49% from last year’s S$44. 4 million. For development project/site sales, there has been a general increase in interest in the closing months of the year, and we are hopeful of a stronger high season than in recent years. For Laguna property sales, the peaceful mid-year elections in Thailand led to an increase in sales activity, which offset the impact of the global economic downturn. Therefore, there was a 2% increase in sales in year 2011. Fee-based The Fee-based segment4 comprises Hotel/Fund/Club Management, Spa/Gallery Operations, Design Fees Others. With the exception of club management, all fee-based units registered year on year increased in revenue, resulting in overall revenue growth of 14%. But there was a lower club membership rate of 33%. This was due to the ongoing global economic uncertainty as well as political unrest in Thailand, which adversely affected investor confidence, particularly in higher-priced hotel residences. Analysis of Financial Ratios Current Ratio Banyan Tree possesses adequate resources to address an immediate crisis. Banyan Tree is able to comfortably payoff its current liabilities with its current assets. This is reflected by an increasing current ratio of 1. 25 since the 2008 economic crisis to 1. 76 in 2011. Competitors such as Stamford land had a current ratio of 1. 72 in 2011, Based on this comparison, Banyan Tree remains competitive. Debt Ratio Banyan Tree’s debt ratio for 2008 was 0. 62. However, this number has been gradually decreased to 0. 603 in 2011 indicating that less of the company’s assets are financed by debt. Competitors in the industry, such as Stamford Land Pte Ltd displayed debt ratios of 0. 538 in 2011, indicating an area where Banyan Tree can improve on. Taking into account Banyan Tree’s strong current ratio, a majority of Banyan Tree’s debt is long term. RevPAR RevPAR (Revenue per Available Room) measures a hotel’s profitability. By multiplying a hotel’s room-rate with the hotel’s occupancy rate, RevPAR measures profitability based on the number of available rooms. RevPAR improved from $179 in 2010 to $181 in 2011. Compared to competitors such as Pan Pacific which had a RevPAR of $135. 23 in 2011, Banyan Tree maintains a competitive grounding in the hospitality market. Earnings per Share Earnings per share (EPS) is a measure of a company’s profitability and investor confidence. Banyan Tree’s EPS was exceptionally high in 2007 due to the recording of an exceptional item gain of $44. 5 million due to litigation. The EPS later fell drastically in 2008 due to the absence of this item. In 2010, its EPS was also high due to the sale of Dusit Laguna Phuket which resulted in an accounting gain of $67. 4 million. However, this led to a fall in EPS again in 2011. EBITDA EBITDA fell steadily from 2007 to 2009, but saw a significant leap in the year 2010. However, most recently, Banyan Tree saw a plunge in earnings to a significant low of 49.4 million in 2011 this is possibly due to a change in accounting policy5. With a 14. 65% EBIDTA margin in 2011, compared to Stamford Land’s EBIDTA margin of 17. 95%, Banyan Tree has limited cash flow which can hinder its progress. The Problems Poor Performance in Thailand Though this poor performance has been excused by attributing the fall in revenue to the sale of Dusit Laguna Phuket and Laguna Beach Resort in 2010 and 2011, it can be attributed more to the political crisis and flooding in Thailand, which severely affected travel to the region as well as investment in the country. Travel to Thailand has since increased however, with the number of foreign tourists in Thailand rising from 15 to 19 million from 2010 to 2011. Hotel occupancy rates for Thailand rose from 50-57% in the same period, as opposed to Banyan Tree’s average occupancy rate decreasing from 52-51%. This might indicate Banyan Tree losing its competitive edge in Thailand or changing tourism trends in the country that it has not followed. Decrease Revenue in Hotel Investments Hotel investment revenue decreased by 20% from $205. 1 million in 2008 to $163. 7 million in 2011. The stronger performance by the hotels in China and the Maldives were offset by weaker numbers from Thailand, since more than half of Banyan Tree’s some 1,608 resorts and hotels are located in Thailand despite divestment efforts in recent years. In both 2008 and 2011, about 45% of Banyan Tree’s total revenue came from their hotel investment segment, which has consistently dropped some since 2008. While the property sales and fee-based segments have been growing in recent years, their growth is insufficient to offset the drop in hotel investment revenue. This problem is furthered by the fact that around 50% of Banyan Tree’s liabilities, and more than 60% of its assets are based in the hotel investment segment. Poor Market Performance Banyan Tree has consistently underperformed the STI since 2008, with its share price dropping around 60% since then. There are three main reasons for this are its decreasing EBITDA, its fluctuating EPS, and erosion of investor confidence given the geopolitical instability in Thailand. With most of its resources and revenue still over-reliant on Thailand, as well as Banyan Tree’s poor performance in the country, investor confidence has been poor in recent years. Future Plans Expanding to Emerging Economies China registered an S$2. 0 million increase in revenue from the year before, partly because of increased MICE activity (Appendix B). In addition, Banyan Tree’s properties in China saw a 55% increase in room revenue in 2011 (Appendix C) Tourist arrivals in china have grown from 26. 126million in 2010 to 27. 1120 million in 20116, an overall growth of foreign tourist arrivals by 3.8% with a slowly but surely recovering global economy and China’s stimulus packages starting to take effect, we should capitalize on China being a steadily growing travel hub and capture a larger market share catering to both travel for business and leisure. Apart from China, Banyan tree should look to expand into North East Asia. In South Korea, tourists’ arrivals have been steadily increasing from 6,890,841 visitors in 2008 to 9,794,796 in 2011. Once again, expanding into North East Asia would make Banyan Tree more profitable due to increased demand of hotel and luxury services. A more profitable Banyan tree will raise share price and increase investor confidence. Earnings per share will improve and as a result, more people will be willing to invest in Banyan tree resulting in greater equity financed working assets and a more financially stable company. Divesting Resources Revenue from Thailand fell 24% to S$33. 3 million, due to the sale of Dusit Laguna Phuket and Laguna Beach Resort in October 2010 and May 2011 respectively. Banyan Tree also suffered from floods occurring in Thailand, resulting in poorer tourist arrivals. Thailand’s poor performance in 2011 has resulted in weaker profits for Banyan Tree. Given the high concentration of hotels and spas in Thailand, Banyan Tree should look to divest some of its resources and re-allocate them into more profitable areas such as China and North East Asia. Fee based Segment Banyan Tree’s fee-based segment makes up 30. 2% of Banyan Tree’s group revenue and has grown by 14% from 2010 to 2011. In light of a weakening Hotel Investment sector, possessing a strong fee-based sector can result in longer term, more sustainable growth. Areas of focus in the fee based segment include expansion into emerging economies as well as deeper focus on Banyan Tree’s spa sector. Given there are only 65 existing spas under Banyan Tree, the spa sector is definitely a plausible area for expansion which can continue drawing revenue from local customers in the event of a drop in the number of tourists. We identify these as potential sources of revenue and believe that Banyan Tree can stand to profit from this. Hotel Management Program Education is an important area of investment. Investment in education almost always pays off. Banyan tree has been in the hotel business since 1994 and knows the ropes of the business. Banyan tree has a ‘Banyan Tree Management Academy’ (BTMA) which roughly covers the first two points discussed below. We are proposing a more prominent distinction between the two wings. We are proposing Banyan Tree to start a Hotel Management Institute with the following three wings: Re-education of existing employees This section involves, as the name suggests, re-education of the already existing employees to the latest trends. It would be made mandatory for every employee to take part in this program once every five years. This would keep the employees up-to-date with all the latest happenings in the field of hotel management. Education of future employees The students under this wing would have to sign a bond stating that they will work with banyan tree for a minimum of ten years after they complete their course and will not be allowed to ever work with any company involved in similar sectors of business as banyan tree. These students will be scholarship students. They will be taught with special focus on banyan tree and in great detail about the banyan tree structure and their way of working. In short, these are the future runners of banyan tree. This measure will help banyan tree create an image that none of its workers are untouchable and will help them easily replace employees. General Education This wing will be the main revenue generation of banyan tree hotel management institute. Students in this wing will be taught in a much general manner about the hotel industry and its structure. These students will not be given scholarships. After their education these students can work wherever they work. There will be a huge number of courses offered to the students under this category as this will be the main part of the institute. It will prepare students who want to assume any role in the hospitality business in the near future. Banyan tree already has a partnership with Cornell through BTMA and should look to use that partnership to help its hotel management institute grow initially.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

International Production and Multinational Enterprise

Question: Discuss about the International Production and Multinational Enterprise. Answer: Introduction: Strategy has been misconstrued as a vision or mission statement, goals, strategic threats by many organizations. Strategy is generally assumed in the common activities of an organization and hence a requirement of comprehensive understanding of strategy in business management. The formation of a strategy is necessary for development of promising opportunities for the organization. Strategy of an organization provides a clear depiction of the markets in which the organization operates, unique value proposition provided by the company, resources and capabilities as well as factors for sustaining its value proposition (Beamish, 2013). Therefore sustenance in global markets has led to exposure towards several prolific strategies such as the AAA framework. The use of the AAA framework is largely concerned with the development of a promising value proposition in a global market and sustaining it. Strategic direction towards global value creation according to the AAA framework relies on the elements of adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage. The three different approaches could be considered as integral aspects of strategies for global value creation. A mere global strategy would not be sufficient to address the requirements in the domain of business (Buckley, Burton Mirza, 2016). The adaptation approach comprises of distinct methods to create value in a global market. Aggregation approach comprises of capitalizing on the economies of scale and scope which is executed commonly using the CAGE framework which relies on cultural, administrative and economic aggregation for facilitating value creation. The approach of aggregation is characterized by limited impact on local responsiveness and could be prepared according to geographic and non-geographic contexts. Arbitrage approach relies on the differences between regions and utilizes the concept of purchasing at lower prices in a specific market and selling at higher prices in another market. The CAGE framework also appli es to Arbitrage approach and hence leveraging cultural, geographic, economic and administrative capabilities for obtaining value in foreign markets (Casson, 2013). Application of Ideas The study of AAA framework could be applied to the case of McDonalds which assumed the adaptation approach to enter the Indian market. The sustenance of the companys value proposition in the sub-continent was primarily driven by its association with local entrepreneurs and introduction of variety in its products according to the preferences of the local customers. Furthermore, it was observed that the company assumed design adaptation and therefore McDonalds was able to reduce the complexity of supply chain management. The company was utilizing the local supply chain for manufacturing products and hence major reduction in the costs of transporting raw materials to the subcontinent was observed. The example of Tesla Motors can be considered for application of the adaptation approach for global value creation (Dunning, 2012). The companys initiatives to build hybrid electric cars should be complemented with focus on specific markets and customer segments. The focus of the organization on specific customer segments which would be willing to purchase the products of Tesla Motors. The application of focus approach of adaptation for Tesla Motors should be directed towards countries which favor environment friendly initiatives such as the hybrid electric cars provided by the company (Driffield, Jones Crotty, 2013). Business Mode Innovation Business model of an enterprise serves as the most promising resource for the company to realize development and growth. The business model could be considered as an outline of the approach followed by an organization and generally refers to four distinct components such as value proposition, value chain infrastructure, and global management model and market participation. It has also been observed that companies should undergo innovation in business model fabrication (Driffield, Jones Crotty, 2013). The apprehension of the roles of values disciplines and the marker leadership in the implementation of a business model for global strategy is imperative. The introduction of plausible inferences such as supply chain management from value chain infrastructure, global management from the model, is scope for global branding due to market participation and value proposition in the form of innovation. Value proposition of a business accounts for the primary aspect of a business model. The v alue proposition can be defined as the companys offer to the customers and package of products and services alongside a complete range of intangible and tangible benefits provided by a company to its customers. Market participation aspect of business model is determined by the organizations preferences for specific markets and customer segments, promotion and advertisement of value proposition as well as distribution methods (Forsgren Johanson, 2014). Market participation is a considerable influence on the identification of specific customers, scope for brand association and interaction between business and customers. The value chain infrastructure depicted in the business model of an organization refers to the association of the company with affiliate and partner networks as well as relevant resources and capabilities required to address the target markets and support the value proposition of the products (Wild, Wild Han, 2014). The value chain infrastructure is also concerned wi th the organization of the supporting networks and resources and capabilities of the organization to create a prolific opportunity for value creation in the target market (Jenkins, 2013) s. Global management model refers to the approach followed by an organization in its global operations and the primary classifications of global management model could be verified in the global product divisions and geographical structuring of the organization. The value discipline followed by a business organization is dependent on the value discipline and value creation strategy. The commonly adopted value disciplines by organizations in their business models refer to operational excellence, customer intimacy and product leadership (Verbeke, 2013). Application of Ideas The example of Intel can be viable observed as an implementation of effective business model for global value creation. Intel has sustained its value proposition for customers in the form of cost-effective computing chips and microprocessors and it defines the integration of product leadership value discipline in the business model. Intel has always set benchmarks in the industry of computing with the introduction of products superlative in processing performance than the earlier processor designs (Sinkovics et al., 2014). The major emphasis on creativity, speed and origin of innovative solutions is the key characteristic of product leadership which reflects on the value proposition of Intel. The case of British Airways can be considered for the realization of a business model for global value creation (Kelley Shenkar, 2013). The company could assume the value discipline of operational excellence through improving efficiency and cost in it value propositions. The existing value chai n infrastructure for British Airways would provide viable opportunities to realize additional concerns of safety of passengers and crew members as well as moderating business processes such as advertising, bookings and verification procedures. These improvisations in the business model of the organization could facilitate appropriate opportunities to sustain the competitive global market (Sinkovics et al., 2014). References Beamish, P., 2013.Multinational Joint Ventures in Developing Countries (RLE International Business). Routledge. Buckley, P.J., Burton, F. and Mirza, H. eds., 2016.The strategy and organization of international business. Springer. Casson, M. ed., 2013.The Growth of International Business (RLE International Business). Routledge. Dunning, J.H., 2012.International Production and the Multinational Enterprise (RLE International Business). Routledge. Dunning, J.H., 2013.Multinationals, Technology Competitiveness (RLE International Business)(Vol. 13). Routledge. Driffield, N., Jones, C. and Crotty, J., 2013. International business research and risky investments, an analysis of FDI in conflict zones.International Business Review,22(1), pp.140-155. Enderwick, P. ed., 2013.Multinational Service Firms (RLE International Business). Routledge. Forsgren, M. and Johanson, J., 2014.Managing networks in international business. Routledge. Jenkins, R., 2013.Transnational Corporations and Uneven Development (RLE International Business): The Internationalization of Capital and the Third World. Routledge. Kelley, L. and Shenkar, O., 2013.International business in China. Routledge. Sinkovics, R.R., Yamin, M., Nadvi, K. and Zhang Zhang, Y., 2014. Rising powers from emerging markets? The changing face of international business.0969-5931,23(4), pp.675-679. Taylor, M. and Thrift, N., 2013.Multinationals and the Restructuring of the World Economy (RLE International Business): The Geography of the Multinationals(Vol. 2). Routledge. Verbeke, A., 2013.International business strategy. Cambridge University Press. Wild, J., Wild, K.L. and Han, J.C., 2014.International business. Pearson Education Limited.